Biosensor and Biochip Applications of S-Layers


Angela Neubauer1, Stefan Kaufmann1, Brigitte Lindner1, Margit Sára2, Wolfgang Schallenberger3, Stefan Weigert1, and Uwe B. Sleytr2

1Center for Ultrastructure Research, TSP Nanoenginneering, Hettenkofergasse 13, A-1160 Vienna, Austria,
2Center for Ultrastructure Research, Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Molecular Nanotechnology, University of Agricultural Sciences, Gregor-Mendel-Strasse 33, A-1180 Vienna, Austria, and
3Nanosearch Membrane GmbH, Hettenkofergasse 13, A-1160 Vienna, Austria

e-mail: neubauer@edv1.boku.ac.at

URL: http://www.boku.ac.at/zuf/nano0.htm

 

The controlled molecular design of functional surfaces is one of the most challenging tasks in the development of new bioanalytical tools, which may be summarized under the terms "lab-on-a-chip" or "biochip". For optimum performance, the transducer/biology interface of such a device must allow biomulecules to be arranged in a controlled and reproducible way with high retention of their biological activity. Efficient communication between the biomolecules and electronic or optic components of the biosensor and a high signal-to-noise-ratio should be supported.

We present a nanobiotechnological approach to creation and design of biosensor or biochip surfaces using S-layer technology – a platform technology based on the natural self-assembly process of bacterial surface layers (S-layers). Combining in vitro recrystallization of S-layer proteins on various surfaces (semiconductors, metals, polymers) with technologies for surface patterning and introduction of functional epitopes (anitgens, receptors, enzymes) by genetic engineering or chemical coupling, S-layer technology enables the building-up of functional surfaces which meet the above mentioned requirements.

PAMELA-IST-1999-13478 is an EC funded research action. It aims at developing a biosensor system that allows very fast and sensitive detection of prostate specific antigen (PSA), which is an important parameter for diagnosis and therapy of prostate cancer.